This information is from a blog by Nick Thacker @ Lifehack.org
For our purposes, though, we’ll focus on the truly simple method of habit-setting in human adults, using research that Duhigg proved and wrote in his book, The Power of Habit.
The Habit Loop
Duhigg describes a habit not as a singular effect in the brain, but as a “chain” of related events–the “Habit Loop.”
The Habit Loop is made up of three components:
The Cue or Trigger phase is what “triggers” a certain routine–technically, this is the start of a habit. A Cue can be anything from walking past the snack machine at work when you go to the restroom, or it can be more complex, like seeing a particular sign on a particular road when you’re driving with a particular person.
The Routine is the part of the habit loop that’s triggered. It’s “what you do” after the Trigger. You see the snack machine and immediately feel hungry. In trying to chase a reward (usually subconsciously), your brain pushes you through the Routine until the Reward is reached.
The Reward is exactly what it sounds like–though it doesn’t need to be an actual positive effect. It’s simply the final stage of a habit loop, telling the brain that the Routine is finished. Because our habits usually end in reward, like “eating a bag of chips and feeling satiated,” or “running a mile and feeling accomplished,” we describe this stage as a reward.
So how do you change a “bad habit?”
Duhigg thankfully doesn’t leave us with just this scientific explanation of a habit loop–he goes further to describe what we can do to target and change a specific habit from one we think is “bad” into one we’re happier with.
It starts with making the subconscious Trigger and Routine stage something we’re conscious of. The most effective thing his test subjects did was genius, and delightfully simple (in theory!):
Duhigg told them to keep an index card and pen or pencil with them at all times, and make a tally mark each time they found themselves going through their habit loop.
A great example of this was his nail-biting test subject. Every time she felt the urge to bite her nails–or actually found herself biting her nails–she made a tally on the card.
After a few weeks, her index card was full of tally marks (she had to start on the back of the card!), but she was acutely aware of the Trigger phase–she knew exactly when she would have nail-biting urges would strike.
What this young lady discovered was that her Habit Loop looked like this:
- Cue: The desire to bite her nails (caused by stress, wanting something to do, whatever)
- Routine: Instead of biting her nails and carrying on about her day, she now must tally it up on the card.
- Reward: The reward of biting her nails (less stress, anxiety, whatever) was still there.
She still bit her nails, but her Habit Loop changed slightly so that she was more conscious of her “bad” habit.
The second step of the Habit Loop
The second thing Duhigg told her to do was to change the Loop slightly–just the Routine phase.
This time, he had her add an “–” dash next to each tally mark that represented when she effectively fought the urges: when she recognized the Cue to bite her nails, but didn’t:
- Cue: Desire to bite her nails ensues.
- Routine: Instead of biting her nails, she actively remembers her task and marks a dash on the index card.
- Reward: She’s given herself the small satisfaction biting her nails once provided–without needing to bite them.
…and you can guess what happened.
Sure enough, after a short amount of time (remember, she’d already spent a few weeks building a new Habit Loop for nail-biting), she no longer needed to bite her nails! The urges were still sometimes there, but her Habit Loop had changed so that the Reward was no longer biting her nails–it was the satisfaction of making a tally mark and a dash when she didn’t bite them!
The power of this exercise is immediately and effectively useful to any of us–whether we bite our nails, smoke, drink too much, or whatever. We can use the Habit Loop and the science behind it to set new habits for ourselves that remove “bad” habits, set new “good” ones, or even make drastic personality changes in our lives.